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DATA-PROCESSING GLOSSARY

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Created it, 05/10/15

Update it, 05/11/24

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Reception

Words for any lira :

For being able to decipher a publicity, to claim to treat the equal one to equal with a salesman or to include/understand the language of the technician of a service of technical aid, it is necessary to take time to assimilate the vocabulary of microprocessing. The dictionary which follows does not claim to be exbausif. It should enable you to follow unrestrained of the technical evolution.

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ADSL : See DSL.

AGP : (Accelerated Graphic Port). This bus of 32 bits on which the data forward at the frequency of 66 MHz is thus twice faster than bus NCV, and the performances which it offers to the PC are without precedent. Initially, the AGP was available only on the mother charts accommodating Pentium II, but the first models intended for Pentium MX and K6 start to emerge. Connectors AGP are dedicated only to the connection of graphics boards, and mainly of those which are equipped with functions 3D.

ON LINE HELP : System of aid for users included in the software. Accessible by the F1 key under Windows, it provides information referring to the function that one is using.

TELEPHONE ASSISTANCE : It is ensured by certain editors and manufacturers and is supposed to bring a technical assistance. It is unfortunately always also difficult to join the technicians charged to ensure this service, more and more often paying.

ATAPI : (Advanced Technology Attachment Peripheral Interfaces). Normalizes connection and of transfer of data concerning the readers of CD-Rom and the peripherals of storage.

MISADVENTURE : Virtual character who represents real. You can create your Misadventure, the character who represents you, for example in the plays. The Misadventures, just as the human beings, are single.

AVI : (Video Audio Interleave). Format of files of video animations under Windows. The files of this format can be read without it being necessary to resort to a specific expander card. The sound and the images are treated in a sequential way.

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BACKUP : See safeguard.

BAND-WIDTH : For a monitor, it corresponds to the maximum of positions swept by an electron beam in 1/25ème of second. The measuring unit is the megahertz; or MHz. One also uses this term to quantify the flow of a network, which it gives or not access to Internet.

BAR OF MEMORY : This small expander card contains read-write memory. It comes to fit in a connector of the mother chart. The standard format is format SIMM (i.e. 8 bits or 32 bits).

BIOS : (BASIC Input System Output). Basic program of a computer which contains all information defining the parameters of operation of the elements of the PC, in particular those of the mother chart. Integrated in a specific memory of the mother chart, it can be brought up to date to profit from the changes of version.

BI-PROCESSOR : The majority of the machines use only one processor. The stations bi-processors, of the models the top-of-the-range one used in network, integrate two of them.

BIT : (Binary Digit). Unit of information which takes only two values (0 and 1). It is the smallest comprehensible unit by a computer. 1 byte = 8 bits.

BITMAP : Says itself of an image which is coded and stored point by point. Bitmap is opposed to vectorial (see this word).

DIALOG BOX : Fenestrate which is posted with the screen during the use of a software. This window is interactive and makes it possible to give or require information relating to the program.

BOOT or STARTING : Abbreviation of Bootstrap. This program activated during the powering of a computer contains the instructions of starting.

BPS : Bit a second. Measuring unit which defines the speed of the flow of a peripheral, of a modem, for example.

BUG or BOGUE : Anomaly in the instructions composing a program or the programming of electronic component.

LOCAL BUS : A this whole of electronic components forms a channel by which the data forward travelling between the expander card and the processor. Used for the important transfers of data (of video file, for example), it saves the passage by the principal bus and thus the deceleration of the computer.

BYTE : See Byte.

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CHART OF ACQUISITION : Chart allowing to digitize of the sound or the video sequences starting from an external source such as a hi-fi system, a Video camera or a video tape recorder.

EXPANDER CARD : Intended to come to be grafted on the mother chart, this chart improves the characteristics of a computer by adding specific functions to him (it can then receive chart its, video chart, chart tuner-TV, etc…).

AUDIONUMERICAL CASSETTE : (or DAT, DIGITAL Audio Types). System of recording on magnetic tapes of numerical data offering a quality equivalent to that of CD.

RIDER or JUMPER : Small plastic element surrounding of the metal which makes it possible to carry out an electric connection between two pins. That allows on mother charts, charts its or other peripherals to define certain parameters. Thus, on a mother chart, the frequency of the clock is defined starting from the adjustment of certain riders.

CD - I : (Compact Disc Interactive). This standard of the CD-ROM that Philips and Sony launched in 1991 underwent a commercial failure. The TDCI are conceived to be read on a television set. The PC are in the incapacity to read the TDCI if they do not have a specific expander card.

CD - R : (Compact Recordable Disc). Inscribable CD, whose capacity is 650 Mo, can be engraved only only once.

CD - RW : (Compact ReWritable Disc). Rewriteable CD on which one can engrave 650 Mo of data approximately a thousand of times.

EC : (European Conformity). This logo, which, since January 1, 1996, must be reproduced on all the electronic components, attests of their conformity to the European standards. It takes in particular into account the standards of electromagnetic radiation.

CHIPSET : See Set of components.

COMPRESSION : Operation consisting in reducing the size of a file by using a specific algorithm. The compression ratio is the relationship between the size of a normal file and the size of this same once compressed file. It is expressed as a percentage.

CONTROLLER : Electronic circuit related to an interface and which makes it possible to manage a peripheral (hard disk, diskette, printer, etc…).

COOKIE : Files registered on your hard disk by a waiter Internet in order to memorize information such as your electronic address, your password, etc… That enables you to be identified with each connection and the administrators of sites to constitute files which covet the services of marketing.

ELECTRONIC MAIL or E - Mail : Message transmitted by network (via Internet or other) between two or several computers.

CPU : See processor.

ENCODING : Technique of coding of a document. The reading of the encrypted document will be prohibited with any person not having the key of decoding

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DAT : (DIGITAL Audio Types). See audionumerical cassette.

DB : Decibel (dB). Measuring unit determining a sound volume.

FLOW or RATE OF TRANSFER: Quantity of information transmitted per unit of time. It is measured out of bit a second or in bytes a second.

DÉFRAGMENTER : To join together in a precise space of the hard disk of the files scattered on this one in several parts. That makes it possible to accelerate the reading of the files, the heads of the disc having less outward journeys and returns to be carried out.

UNCURLER OF BANDS : Magnetic tape reader being used for the safeguard of the data.

D - HTML: (Dynamic HTML). Evolution of language HTML allowing to create pages animated on Internet. The D-HTML is a coded representation HTML, style sheets and programs in the form of scripts.

DIMM : Type of bars of read-write memory equipped with 64 bits, (the bars of memory SIMM count 32 of them).

DISKETTE or FLOPPY DISK (FD) : Floppy means “flexible”. The diskettes make it possible to store 1,44 Mo of data. There are two varieties, the models of 5,25 inches, which are not used practically any more, and the models of 3,5 inches. The latter have various densities: simple, double (DD) and high density (HD).

DPI : (Dowries Per Inch). See Ppp.

DRAM : (Dynamic RAM). Read-write memory which must be unceasingly refreshed to preserve the data that it stores, which increases the access times. It is also the least expensive memory of the market.

DDRAM : Double spleen Random Access Memory Dated: they have 1 only notch “new generation”

DRIVER : See pilot.

DSL: Techniques which make it possible to obtain very large flows on the part of the lines of telephone which arrives to the private individuals and the companies without modifying it (on the other hand, it is necessary to adapt the infrastructure of the network). Most known are ADSL (Asymetrical DIGITAL Subscriber Line) and HSDSL (High-Speed DIGITAL Subscriber Line).

DSTN : (Double Scan Super Twisted Nematic). Technology employed in the manufacture of the passive matrix screens.

DVD - Romanian : (Changeable DIGITAL disk) the DVD-Romanian is the short-term substitute of the CD-Rom. It presents the same format (12 centimetres diameter, 1,2 mm thickness) but can store up to 17 Go of data for the models with double face and double density (4,7 Go for the DVD-Romanians simple face and simple layer). When the DVD-RAM, it will allow moreover the data record. These supports, promised with a beautiful future, will replace certainly the video tape recorders.

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E-IDE : (Enhanced IDE). This version improved of interface IDE allows the connection of four peripherals of storage. Mainly used by the hard disks, it also makes it possible to accommodate peripherals to standard ATAPI (reader of CD-Rom or uncurlers of bands, for example). It from now on is replaced by the UltraDMA interface.

TO SAMPLE : Sampling consists in converting analogical audio sequences into numerical files. The sounds thus obtained can be treated then restored by a chart its, for example (one speaks then about table of samples).

EDO : (Extended Dated Out). This variety of read-write memory is 5 to 10% faster than memory D-RAM, because it integrates memory hiding place, which facilitates the reading of the data. It appeared with the Pentium processors.

EMOTICON or SMILEY : Combination of characters indicating an emotional state which is employed by the Net surfers at the time of conferences on the networks, or in the e-mails. The first was : -). The French word, a little barbarian, is more suitable: spalling hammer wants to say “to smile”, but let us émoticons them are sometimes sad.

EMULATION : Action for a software or an expander card to simulate the behavior of a program. For example, one resorts to an application software., known as emulator, to work under Windows with a computer of the Macintosh type, this operating system and these materials being incompatible.

ENERGY STAR : Label indicating that a monitor is equipped with a processor which reduces the consumption of energy when the screen is not used during a certain time. What to make small economies.

EPP : See wide parallel Port.

ACHIEVABLE : Program in binary, directly comprehensible code by the processor, or file containing of the orders involving of the actions or the operations on behalf of the system.

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FDHD : Diskette of high density.

FIREWALL or CUT FIRE : Computer ensuring the safety of an internal network connected to Internet. It is about a filter between the Web site and the people who connect themselves to it. It normally makes it possible to avoid the hacking.

FIREWIRE or IEEE 1394 : FireWire is a new bus which forms integral part of interface SCSI-3. Offering a flow of several hundred megabytes a second, it is planned for the connection of peripherals using the great number of data, most significant being the numerical Video camera. It makes it possible to connect several different peripherals on a bus. There only exists very little of interface boards FireWire on the market.

FLOPPY DISK : See diskette.

TO FORMAT : To give a format a virgin diskette or a hard disk so that they can be used by the computer. This operation erases all the data contained before.

FORUM or NEWSGROUP : Public place on a network where the users can exchange messages. Each message is called “contribution”. On certain forums, the expression is free, while on others, it is controlled by an administrator.

FRAGMENTATION : With each recording of a file, its data are distributed at the places of the hard disk where there is space available. When the elements of a file are not placed the ones beside the others, the access time to the file is longer. This is why it is necessary of défragmenter its disk hard of time to other. (Once a month).

FRAMES : Frameworks or windows included in some of the pages which compose the sites on Internet.

FREWARE : Software pertaining to the public domain. It is free because free rights.

FREQUENCY : Speed of operation of the processor, expressed in megahertz (MHz). It corresponds to the number of signals transmitted a second.

FREQUENCY OF SWEEPING : It can be horizontal or vertical. It is the maximum number of lines that a screen refreshes a second. This speed of cooling is expressed in hertz (horizontal) and kilocycle (vertical).

FTP : (File Transfer Protocol). Protocol in force on Internet which allows the transmission of any file of a computer another.

DUPLEX FULL : A chart its is known as full duplex when it is able to send and to receive sound simultaneously. One can thus compare a chart his full duplex on a telephone (because the two interlocutors can speak at the same time) and a duplex chart half with walkie-talkie (each interlocutor waits until the other finished to speak). The charts full duplex are used mainly in the applications of telephony, therefore via a modem.

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GREEN PC : Label indicating that the components of the PC respect the standard of energy saving instituted by the EPA (arranges American environmental protection) and that their manufactoring processes are in conformity with a charter of respect of the environment.

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HIT : Index allowing to evaluate the number of visitors of a Web page on Internet. This disputed system because no protocol is defined : certain sites count a hit by connection to the site, others by a remote loading of image (if the page contains some several, the index is distorted), others take into account the number of pages visited on the site, even if they were seen by only one person.

HOMEPAGE : The suppliers of access and the services on line allocate almost a whole a personal page (a homepage) with their subscribers so that they can there be expressed. On CompuServe, a personal address presents following syntax : http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepage/mon_nom.

HOTLINE : See telephone assistance.

HOTLIST : Mailing list favorite of Web site, list personal or drawn up by an administrator of site.

HTML : System of coding allowing to create pages intended to be consulted on Internet.

HTTP : Software protocol which regulates the transfers of Web pages on your computer.

HYPERTEXT : System of data-processing bonds which makes it possible to sail on Internet or in a CD-Rom. The hypertext links are often materialized with the screen by words or images, highlighted or are underlined, on which have click. The click gives you access to new data related to original information or to a related site.

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ICON : Graphic symbol representing a software or a file. Double-click on an icon opens the file or launches the software.

IDE : (Integrated Drive Electronics). Hard disk with integrated controller.

INTERFACE GRAPHIC : Software layer of the operating system of the PC, such as Windows, allowing to direct its computer via toolbars, icons, etc….

INTRANET : Term forged on the model of Internet. The networks Intranet, which one finds inside a company, of an administration, are networks whose architecture respects the protocols and standards in force on Internet and who allow to share information between the connected users.

IRC : (Internet Relay Chat). Protocol allowing to dialog in writing on line on Internet.

ISA : (Industry Standard Structures). Variety of buses become standard, today in loss speed, which makes it possible to add expander cards, such as the charts sound. This bus transmits the data to a speed of 8 Mo/s.

ISO : (International Organization Standard). International regrouping of commercial and nongovernmental organizations which creates applicable standards in industry.

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SET OF COMPONENTS or CHIPSET : Together of electronic circuits located on the mother chart and which are in permanent dialog with the processor and the other bodies of the mother chart (memory hiding place, drunk extension, interfaces, etc….) .Les sets of the most known components is the 430TX, intended for Pentium MX, the 440FX, in Pentium Pro and the 440LX, Pentium II.

JPEG : (Joined Expert Photographic Group). Standard format of compression of images. It alas involves large losses of quality of the image.

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LCD : (Liquid Hook Display). Technology of posting, with liquid crystals, mainly used by the portables, but the PC come there gradually. It is a sparing view in energy which authorizes the construction of screens of reduced size.

LITHIUM-ION : Chemical component used by the batteries of the portables. The batteries with the lithium-ion are currently most powerful of the varieties of batteries used by the portables.

LOG-IN or IDENTIFIER : This code identifies the Net surfer at the time of his communications. Chosen by the user, it is consisted of the name or a nickname, a pseudonym and is generally supplemented by a password.

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ACTIVE MATRIX : Technology of the screens of portables with crystals liquid where each pixel (not) is ordered by three transistors (one by primary color), which offers contrasts of quality and allows a better vision.

PASSIVE MATRIX : Technology of the screens of portables with crystals liquid where each pixel (not) is with the intersection of the files horizontal and vertical.

MEMORY HIDING PLACE : Internal storage and statics intercalated between the processor and the read-write memory. It stores last information used to answer more quickly at the requests of the processor. Like, statistically, a good part of this information D-will be exploited at the time of the request which follows, this memory makes it possible to reduce the response times.

VIDEO MEMORY : Memory reserved for posting. The fact of using a specialized memory makes it possible to largely accelerate the speed of treatment of the computer and to increase the resolution of posting or the number of colors available. The size of the video memories varies between 1 Mo and 16 Mo for the professional graphics boards. The standard size is 4 Mo.

FINELY CONTEXTUAL : Finely which appears on the screen when one clicks on the right button of the mouse. Its contents vary according to the place where the pointer is located when one clicks on the desk.

MEGAHERTZ : MHz = 1 million Hertz. Measuring unit the speed of the processor.

MIDI : (Musical DIGITAL Instrument Interfaces). Communication normalizes which governs the musical instructions that one gives to a computer. That allows the computer equipped with a chart its to restore musical files but also to control external numerical instruments such as a synthetizer, for example.

MIME : (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension). Format of messages of Internet allowing to send attached files which are not textual files with an e-mail.

MIPS : (Million Instructions A second). Measuring unit of the computing power of a processor.

MMX : Normalizes, invented by INTEL, which offers capacities multimedia to the processor without one adding expander cards. This technology envisages the installation of 57 instructions accelerating the multimedia treatments.

MNP : (Microcom Network Protocol). Protocol of compression and correction of data within the framework of exchange per modem.

MODE 24 BITS : Operating mode of a video chart, in which each pixel is defined by 3 bytes, is 24 bits. One then has 16,7 million colors per pixel, a level of ideal detail.

MODEM : (Modem). Peripheral making it possible to transform a numerical signal into analogical and vice versa signal in order to exchange data via a telephone line.

MORPHING : Method of animation in synthesized images, which consist in creating an image from two or several images different.

MO / S : Megabytes a second. Measuring unit of the flow of a communication.

SEARCH ENGINE : Software which carries out with your request of research on the Internet. There are three types of engines: Those which rest on an indexing of the sites carried out by human beings (Yahoo!), those which exploit an indexing made by robots, or spiders (Alta Vista), and the méta-engines, which undertake research starting from the existing search engines (cyber411).

MPEG : (Moving Picture Expert Group). The best standard of compression and decompression of the video sequences. It breaks up into two under-standards: MPEG-1 (used by video CD). 1992. Audio quality VHS and CD. Resolution of 352 X 288 out of standard Stake-Secam, flow from 3 to 10 Mbits a second.

MPR 2 or MPR II : Normalizes defining the maximum radiations of the screens. Its respect saves the static formation of electricity.

MTBF : (Mean Time Between Failure). This value, estimated by the manufacturers, indicates the number of hours which runs out on average between two breakdowns. It thus makes it possible to estimate the reliability of a material and applies especially to the hard disks.

MULTIFREQUENCY or MULTISYNC : Says itself of a monitor able to adapt its frequency of cooling according to the resolution employed. All the monitors are the “multifrequency” type today.

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NE : Not Interlaced. View. All the lines of the screen are traversed with each cooling (instead of one on two in interlaced mode). That saves the flutters. It is increasingly more pleasant for the pupils.

NEWSGROUP : See Forum.

NIMH : Nickel - Metal-Hydride. Chemical component employee by the batteries of the portables. He succeeded NiCad (Cadmium-nickel), now disappeared, and he shows himself less powerful than the lithium-ion.

NTSC : (National Standard Television Comitee). Standard of televisual diffusion American and Japanese in 525 lines.

NUMÉRIS : Commercial name of the network of numerical telephone lines of France Telecom (See ISDN).

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OCR : (Optical Character Recognition) Optical character recognition. Technique allowing to convert the characters of an image into Ascii character. It is used by the scanners.

OCTET ou BYTE : Unit of coding of information which passes by the processor. A byte is a whole of 8 bits which can take 256 different values. One megabyte (Mo) is worth 1024 Kilobytes (KB), and 1 Gigaoctet (Go) is equivalent 1024 Mo.

OEM : (Equipment Original to manufacture). Manufacturer selling of the material to the manufacturers and with the assemblers. By extension, one indicates name of material OEM the products which the latter will resell under their name.

INVERTER : In data processing, this word indicates a peripheral which one places between the power supply and the computer. By controlling the arrival of electricity, it prevents the microcuts or the peaks of current which could cause losses of data or damage the computer. When a breakdown occurs, it replaces the power supply during a few minutes (according to the capacity of the undulator), you thus leaving time to safeguard the data.

OVERDRIVE : Processor of evolution. Conceived by INTEL, it replaces in a PC a processor exceeded of this founder in order to offer the power of a new generation of processors without it being necessary to change mother chart.

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PAL : (Phase Alternating line). Standard of televisual diffusion in 625 lines which has course in Europe. 

NO THE MASK or PITCH : Outdistance between two pixels on a screen. Calculated in mm (the standard spacing is 0,28 mm), it makes it possible to regulate clearness according to the size of the screen and the resolution.

PATCH : See Program Rubber patch.

PC CARD : In the past PCMCIA. The expander cards PC CARD (modems, charts MIDDAY and well of others), respect the standard PCMCIA 3, which supposes the presence of a bus NCV of 32 bits.

PCI : (Peripheral Component interconnect). Drunk of 32 bits on which the data forward at the frequency of 33 MHz. It recognizes as of starting the peripherals which are connected to him without passing by the processor. It is essential for a computer Plug And Play.

PCMCIA : (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). Consortium of companies which defined a standard of expander cards concerning the portables. There are three formats of charts: I, II and III. They have the same number of pins but this differentiate by their thickness. See PC Card.

PILOT or DRIVER : Software which provides the interface between a peripheral and the operating system. Under Windows, all the peripherals (graphics board, mouse, hard disk, keyboard and printer, etc….) use at least a pilot. The performances of a peripheral depend for much quality pilot, it is thus appropriate to update this last as new versions appear (it is possible to rather easily find them on Internet).

PITCH : See Not mask.

PIXEL or POINT : Abbreviation of picture element. It is one of the points of light which constitute an image with the screen. The quality of the resolution depends on the number of posted pixels or points.

PLUG AND PLAY or PnP : Literally: connect and that functions. A peripheral is known as Plug And Play when it is recognized automatically by the operating system, which facilitates its installation largely.

PLUG-IN : Plug-in of an application. This program is conceived to function starting from an existing application, as if it formed part of it originally.

POLYMORPHIC : Virus which changes for better hiding. The viruses of this type belong to most dangerous.

PARALLEL PORT or LPT : Connector which is used to connect a printer, a scanner or an uncurler of bands to the computer. Primarily used for the printers.

WIDE PARALLEL PORT : (Or EPP, Enhanced Paralled Port). Parallel standard of port which allows high flows of transfer: 2 Mo/s (8 bits in entry and exit).

PORT SERIES : Generally used by the mice, modems and cameras numerical, this connector transmits the bits one by one.

POSTSCRIPT : Language of description of document designed by the firm Adobe, used much by the printers laser. The characters are described by curves, called of Bézier.

PPM : Page (S) per minute. The number of pages treated by a printer in one minute measures its speed.

PPP : Not (S) by inch). Measuring unit of the quality of impression of a printer or quality of digitalization of a scanner, and which defines the resolution of an image. The resolution thus depends on the number of points. The current prices for the scanners and the printers are 300 to 600 points per inch.

CLIPBOARD : Utility allowing to recover data by one Cut-to stick and which stores them temporarily (Clipboard) before they are not integrated into another document.

PROCESSOR or CPU : (Processing Exchange Links). Essential component of the computer - by analogy, one can say that it is the engine -, it carries out almost all calculations and supervises flows of information which circulates in the computer. (See my page of electronics).

PROGRAM RUBBER PATCH : Addition of some lines of code to a program, the program rubber patch is intended to correct a bug quickly.

PUSH : On the Internet, it is henceforth possible, while subscribing near content providers, to receive on the monitor of its PC of regularly brought up to date information: it is what the term of push (“to push”, in English) in opposition to sweater indicates (“to draw” in English), which indicates the traditional mode of collection of information: the user will seek it itself.

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QIC : (Quarter Commitee Inch). Associations of manufacturers eager to standardize the magnetic tapes with the format quarter of inch, is 6,35 Misters By extension, the initials indicates these magnetic tapes.

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COOLING : Action consisting, for a monitor, to bring up to date the posting of the screen. That occurs by defect, even if the image did not change. See Frequency of sweeping.

RAM : (Random Memory Accesses). Read-write memory. There are several types. See in particular SDRam and EDO.

RAMDAC : (RAM DIGITAL Analogic Converter). Converter which transforms the numerical data of the video memory into analogical data so that they can be read by the monitor. On its frequency the rate depends on maximum cooling of the image on the monitor.

RESOLUTION : A number of pixels posted in width and height on a screen. For example: 1024 X 768. The resolution can be also the density of points (expressed in points per inch, or dpi) of an image. Those of the printers and the scanners generally lie between 300 PPP and 1200 pp.

RNIS : Integrated services digital network. It makes it possible to convey voice and data at a speed being able to reach several hundreds of Kilobits a second (kbps). That of France Telecom with for name Numéris. The basic access to numéris gathers two channels with 64 kbps each one. To use Numéris, it is necessary to lay out an adapter ISDN (the equivalent of a modem on the numerical telephone lines) and of a special telephone.

RPM : (Revolution Per Minute). See TPM.

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SAFEGUARD or BACKUP : Recording of files on a support other than the hard disk of the computer (on a diskette, Romanian CD, or on the cartridges of the various removable storage units…) The safeguard will enable you to recover your data if you cannot reach it any more on your computer or that they were lost.

SCSI : (Small Computer System Interfaces). Interface allowing to connect to seven peripherals the computer (standard E-IDE accepts only four of them). The rate of minimal transfer is 5 Mo/s. It exists several variations of this standard SCSI-2 with a rate of transfer of 10 Mo/s, Fast SCSI-2 (from 15 to 20 Mo/s), Wilde SCSI-2 (20 to 40 Mo/s) and finally Ultra Wilde SCSI-2 (40 Mo/s).

SDRAM : (Synchronous Dynamic Random Memory Accesses). Read-write memory used on the recent computers, more powerful than memory EDO. It is very effective during the file transfer of small size.

SECAM : (Sequential System color with memory). Standard of televisual diffusion in 625 lines which with course in France and in some African countries.

SEQUENTIAL : Says itself what is carried out sequence after sequence. In a memory where the data are recorded in the order of their presentation and can be extracted only in this order, the accesses are known as sequential. In the same way, a file is known as “with sequential access” when one must read the recordings the ones after the others, contrary to a file to direct or “random” access.

SHAREWARE : Contributive software. It is distributed free for a probation period to the expiry of which it is necessary to pay a contribution to the author. This one gives right updates.

SIGNET or BOOKMARK : The bookmark is in the Web pages what the bookmark is a book. It makes it possible to store the electronic addresses of your preferred sites.

SIMM : (Individual Inline Memory Modulates). Bar of read-write memory standard. There are two formats: 8 bits and 32 bits.

SLOT : Connector placed on the mother chart which makes it possible to connect expander cards.

SLOT 1 : Site of the processor intended for Pentium II which takes the shape of a connector of expander card.

SOCKET 7 : Type of site intended to receive a processor. Socket 7 is used by Pentium, the 6x86, k6, Pentium MX and the 6x86MX.

SRAM : (Static RAM). Memory which does not need cooling, from where the static name of storage, which accelerates its speed of treatment considerably. Very expensive, it is still used by the manufacturers only like memory hiding place.

STREAMER : See Uncurler of bands.

SVGA : (Super Video Graphic array). Graphic view in 800 X 600 pixels and 256 colors.

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RATE OF TRANSFER : See flow.

TCO-92 : Name Swedish consortium. Label aiming at regulating ergonomics, energy, ecology, the emission, the effectiveness and the economy of the monitors.

TCP-IP : (Transmission Control Protocol-Intenet Protocol). Protocol of communication in force on the Internet.

TO DOWNLOAD : Action to recover by copying it from its computer, via a modem or a network, a file resulting from Internet or Minitel, for example, or to send it on another computer.

ACCESS TIME : Average time taken by a hard disk to reach a data which it stores. The measuring unit is the thousandths of second.

TFT : (Thin Film Transistor). Technology of manufacture of the liquid crystal displays with active matrix.

TPM : (Turns Per Minute). Measuring unit number of revolutions of an object, useful mainly as regards hard disk.

TRINITRON : Technology developped at the point by Sony and which allows the cathode ray tubes to do without mask, which improves contrast and the luminosity.

TWAIN : (Technology Without Any Important Name). Normalizes which allows any scanner which obeys there (i.e. great majority of them) to dialog with the software authorizing the numerical frame grabbing. It is necessary of course that the software in question is also compatible Twain.

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ULTRADMA : Protocol of transfer of data between the hard disk and the processor of the PC. Contrary to protocol E-IDE PIO Mode 4, which was limited to 16,6 Mo/s, UltraDMA makes it possible to reach a flow of 33 Mo/s, and even, now, 66 Mo/s. However, this limit is theoretical. To date, the hard disks UltraDMA are only 10 to 15% faster than models E-IDE.

UPGRADE : Handing-over on level of a material by the change of processor, for example, or the addition of memory.

URL: (Uniform Resource Locator). Address electronic. Standard of attribution of the electronic addresses on Internet. And, by extension, the address itself (one thus understands to usually say: “my URL, your URL….”).

USB : (Universal Serial Drunk). Present on the market since more than one year, the USB was not up to now discounted success. This bus series, on which one can connect in chain to 127 peripherals, is supposed, in the long term, to replace the old connectors series where parallel, but also connectors for keyboard, mouse PS/2… One can connect there peripherals such as scanners, printers or modems. Version 98 of Windows recognizes the peripherals USB, which starts to be marketed.

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V.90 : Standard common to all the modems with 56 kbps approved by the International Telecommunication Union in September 1998.

VECTORIAL : Technique of representation of the images starting from geometrical forms. See Bitmap.

VRAM : (Video RAM). Video memory which functions with two input-outputs in order to accelerate posting.

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WRAM : (Windows RAM). Like the VRam memory, this video memory has two input-output channels. It is particularly powerful in the high resolutions.

 

     

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Daniel